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Female Reproductive Health

The effects of children's cancer therapy on female reproductive function depend on many factors, including the person's age at the time of cancer therapy, the specific type and location of the cancer, and the treatment that was given. It is important to understand how the ovaries and female reproductive organs function and how they may be affected by therapy given to treat cancer during childhood.

At birth, a girl's ovaries contain all the eggs they will ever have. When it is time for a girl to begin pubertal development, the pituitary gland in the brain signals the ovaries by releasing two hormones: FSH and LH. The ovaries secrete the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, necessary for reproductive function. During each menstrual cycle, at least one egg usually matures and is released from the ovaries. If the egg is not fertilized, menstruation begins. The cycle then repeats itself about every 28 days. With each menstrual cycle, the supply of eggs decreases. When most of the eggs are depleted from a woman's ovaries, menopause begins. During menopause, the menstrual cycles stop, the ovaries stop making hormones, and the woman is no longer able to become pregnant.

Affect of Cancer Therapy on Ovaries

Certain chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, and surgery can sometimes damage the ovaries, reducing the reserve supply of eggs. When the ovaries are not able to produce eggs or hormones, this is called ovarian failure.

Causes of Ovarian Failure

Chemotherapy of the "alkylator" type (such as cyclophosphamide, nitrogen mustard, and busulfan) is most likely to affect ovarian function. The total dose of alkylators used during cancer treatment is important in determining the likelihood of ovarian damage. With higher total doses, the likelihood of damage to the ovaries increases. If treatment for children's cancer included a combination of both radiation and alkylating chemotherapy, the risk of ovarian failure may be increased.

Radiation therapy can affect ovarian function in two ways:

Cancer Treatments that Increase the Risk of Ovarian Failure

Radiation therapy to any of the following areas:

Chemotherapy - the class of drugs called "alkylators" can cause ovarian failure when given in high doses. Examples of these drugs include:

Effects of Children’s Cancer Treatment on the Female Reproductive

If a woman has regular monthly menstrual periods and normal hormone levels (FSH, LH, and estradiol), she is likely to be fertile and able to have a baby.

If a woman does NOT have monthly menstrual periods, or if she has monthly menstrual periods ONLY with the use of supplemental hormones, or if she had to take hormones in order to enter or progress through puberty, she is likely to be infertile.

Women who had surgical removal of both ovaries will be infertile.

Women who had surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) will also be unable to bear a child.

Women with these risk factors should be followed closely by an obstetrician who is qualified to care for women with high-risk pregnancies.

Females who have had any cancer treatments that may affect ovarian function should have a yearly check-up that includes careful evaluation of menstrual history, hormonal status, and progression through puberty. Blood may be tested for hormone levels (FSH, LH, and estradiol). If any problems are detected, a referral to an endocrinologist (hormone specialist) and/or other specialists may be recommended. For women with ovarian failure, a bone density test (special type of X-ray) to check for thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) may also be recommended.

© The Children's Oncology Group
The information and content provided on this website is made available for informational purposes only for children and their families affected by cancer. While the Children's Oncology Group strives to provide accurate and up-to-date information, the information may be out of date or incomplete in certain respects. Please do not rely on this information and seek the care of a qualified medical professional if you have questions regarding a specific medical condition, disease, diagnosis or symptom. The information and content presented herein is not intended to replace the independent clinical judgement, medical advice, screening, health counseling, or other intervention performed by your (or your child's) health care provider. Please contact "911" or your emergency services if this is a health emergency. No endorsement of any specific tests, products, or procedures is made herein.